GoGreen Logo Dave Grant (408) 506-3824
Diane DiGiuseppe (408) 888-3709



D&D Osteological Services, LLC

The services listed below are some of the current areas that D&D Osteological Services, LLC are presently covering.  But, these analyses are fluid, as we continue to expand our knowledge and skeletal expertise to provide as thorough a picture of the individual or population being examined. Additionally, when agreement with the client and MLD are provided, D&D will assist in the procurement of other types of analyses: AMS dating, Stable Isotope and Dietary Analysis, Strontium Analysis for possible migration, and DNA

Site Analysis
Recovery of skeletal remains, as well as artifacts associated with each burial are excavated with great attention to detail.  When excavating the burial, the D&D osteologists work with small hand tools and wooden implements to ensure that no damage to the bone occurs.  When necessary, special clothing is worn that provides safety to both the excavator and those working in proximity to the grave.  As seen in the photograph to the left, tyvex clothing was worn by the D&D osteologist and the Native American monitor during excavation through a layer of serpentine rock, which is a natural source of asbestos, to ensure the safety of both individuals from the small particles of asbestos.  To ensure that all skeletal remains and artifacts are recovered, the D&D crew uses a variety of screen sizes on all soil matrices for maximum recovery, from the surface layer to several centimeters below the burial.   


These Beads Were Excavated During The Recovery Program Conducted on a Portion of the Mission Santa Clara Indian NeophyteCemetery
A total of 18 type A1a and 7 type A1b beads were reviewed in this addendum analysis. These are the most basic forms of Olivella beads and are defined as “Spire-lopped” or “Spire-ground.”These are whole shells, with the spires removed, have been sub-typed into three categories based on differences in overall size. Tiny A1a beads have a maximum width diameter of less than 6.6mm. The medium sized beads (A1b) have diameters between 6.6 and 9.5 mm, while large ones (A1c) are 9.6 mm or wider in diameter. Read More

Skeletal Remains Analysis

A complete examination of skeletal remains are conducted by the Osteologist to answer the question of sex, age, stature, types of pathologies as well as dental disease, and their relationship to their environment. 


Skeletal Pathological Lesions

A thorough pathological review of each element is conducted to identify degenerative joint disease and osteoarthritis of the spine; skeletal stress indicators and anomalies, such as, spetal apertures, metopic suture remnants, cervical ribs, enthesophytes, etc.; trauma in the form of fractures of long bones, the cranium , or facial impacts, projectile point trauma, etc.; osteoporosis; taphonomic impacts to the skeletal remains by outside influences, i.e., construction activities, rodent activity, etc.; and other impacts to the individual skeleton in the form of infection and periosteal reactions.

Dental Analysis
Specifically, a detailed dental analysis can tell us a lot about an individual’s immediate relationship to their environment.  Since dentition is the only skeletal element that interfaces with the environment, it provides a wealth of information, such as, interaction of the individual and their environment.  This can be seen in caries, abscesses, and periodontal disease, which reveals information about diet, cariogenic foods that were consumed.  Hyperplasias are permanent skeletal markers of stress events experienced by the individual during childhood.  They can be remnants or palimpsests of famine, nutritional depravation, sickness, and weaning.

Detailed Recording
A detailed recording of all of the above listed areas are provided for the client, as well as, a comprehensive overview of all of these conditions and how they would have affected or impacted the individual.  Additional research areas that are reported include faunal and shell and lithic analyses.  When AMS dating or stable isotope research is conducted on a site, a detailed chapter is included in the overall report.